Subtypes of Schizophrenia
The DSM-IV-TR contains five sub-classifications of schizophrenia, although the developers of DSM-5 are recommending they be dropped from the new classification:
Paranoid type of schizophrenia
Delusions or auditory hallucinations are present, but thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or affective flattening are not. Delusions are persecutory and/or grandiose, but in addition to these, other themes such as jealousy, religiosity, or somatization may also be present. (DSM code 295.3/ICD code F20.0)
Disorganized type of schizophrenia
Named hebephrenic schizophrenia in the ICD. Where thought disorder and flat affect are present together. (DSM code 295.1/ICD code F20.1)
Catatonic type of schizophrenia
The subject may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated, purposeless movement. Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility. (DSM code 295.2/ICD code F20.2)
Undifferentiated type of schizophrenia
Psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types have not been met. (DSM code 295.9/ICD code F20.3)
Residual type of schizophrenia
Where positive symptoms are present at a low intensity only. (DSM code 295.6/ICD code F20.5)
The ICD-10 defines two additional subtypes:
Post-schizophrenic depression of schizophrenia
A depressive episode arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present. (ICD code F20.4)
Simple schizophrenia of schizophrenia
Insidious and progressive development of prominent negative symptoms with no history of psychotic episodes. (ICD code F20.6)
Schizophrenia typically is characterized by perturbations in cognition, affect and behavior, all of which have a bizarre aspect. Delusions, also generally bizarre, and hallucinations, generally auditory in type, also typically occur. The original name for this illness, “dementia praecox,” was coined by Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, whose description of the illness remains a guiding force for modern investigators.
Schizophrenia is a relatively common disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of about 1%. Although the overall sex ratio is almost equal, males tend to have an earlier onset than females, a finding accounted for by the later age of onset in those females who lack a family history of the disease.
The symptoms of schizophrenia normally appear during early adulthood, but they can sometimes emerge during childhood, at the age of 10 years or earlier. It is extremely rare, with an incidence of less than 0.04 percent.
If schizophrenia occurs in a child, it is very serious, and treatment is needed.
However, healthy children can experience hallucinations, so if this happens, it does not mean that a child has schizophrenia.
A person with schizoaffective disorder experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and mood disorder symptoms, such as mania or depression.
In the past, the person had to have both sets of symptoms at the same time to receive a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder.
The DSM-V update in 2013 now says that to be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, a person must have experienced mood disorders for most of the time they have also had the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, from when they first started having symptoms up to the present.
The first DSM edition (1952) included “Schizophrenic reaction, Schizo-affective type” and the DSM II (1968) subdivided this diagnosis into “Schizo-affective type, excited” “and Schizo-affective type, depressed” within the Schizophrenia